GATE 2021 Syllabus
GA: General Aptitude (Common To All papers)

Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning, and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.

Sample Questions
Verbal Ability
Choose the appropriate answer to complete the following sentence:
1. To those of us who had always thought him timid, his came as a surprise.
(A) intrepidity (B) inevitability (C) inability (D) inertness
2. Choose the appropriate answer to complete the following sentence: Medicine is to illness as law is to
(A) discipline (B) anarchy (C) treason (D) etiquette

Read the following paragraph:
“The ordinary form of mercury thermometer is used for temperature ranging from –40oF to 500oF. For measuring temperature below –40oF, thermometers filled with alcohol are used. These are, however, not satisfactory for use in high temperatures. When a mercury thermometer is used for temperature above 500oF, the space above the mercury is filled with some inert gas, usually nitrogen or carbon dioxide, placed in the thermometer under pressure. As the mercury rises, the gas pressures is increased, so that it is possible to use these thermometers for temperatures as high as 1000oF.”
3. With what, besides mercury, would a thermometer be filled if it was designed to be used for measuring temperature of about 500oF?
(A) Pyrometer (B) Inert gas (C) Iron and brass (D) Gas
The cost of manufacturing tractors in Korea is twenty percent less than the cost of manufacturing tractors in Germany. Even after transportation fees and import taxes are added, it is still cheaper to import tractors from Korea to Germany than to produce tractors in Germany.
4. Which of the following assertions is best supported by the above information?
(A) Labour costs in Korea are twenty percent below those in Germany.
(B) Importing tractors into Germany will eliminate twenty percent of the manufacturing jobs in Germany.
(C) The costs of transporting a tractor from Korea to Germany is more than twenty percent of the cost of manufacturing the tractor in Korea.
(D) The import taxes on a tractor imported from Korea to Germany is less than twenty percent of the cost of manufacturing the tractor in Germany.

Numerical Ability
5. In a survey, 3/16 of the people surveyed told that they preferred to use public transport while commuting daily to office. 5/8 of the people surveyed told that they preferred to use their own vehicles. The remaining 75 respondents said that they had no clear preference. How many people preferred to use public transport?
(A) 75 (B) 100 (C) 125 (D) 133
The syllabus for the GATE 202122 will be provided by the official authority. Here, we have given the syllabus for few subjects.
GATE 2021 BioTechnology Engineering Syllabus

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
 Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
 Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDELaplace, heat and wave equations.
 Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
 Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

General Biotechnology
 Biochemistry: Biomoleculesstructure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
 Microbiology: Viruses structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and hostpathogen interaction
 Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; CellCell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction
 Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases
 Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopylight, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopyUV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
 Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigenantibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
 Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatics resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, proteinprotein, proteinnucleic acid, proteinligand interaction)

Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Sitedirected mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance.
Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and nonanchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macrocarrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fedbatch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solidliquid separation and liquidliquid extraction; Process scaleup, economics and feasibility analysis
Engineering principle of bioprocessing Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; BioremediationAerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes
Civil Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
 Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and nonlinear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
 Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order onedimensional wave equation and twodimensional Laplace equation.
 Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics  Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
 Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multistep methods for first order differential equations.

Structural Engineering
 Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, freebody diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulsemomentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.
 Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
 Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
 Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural steel  composition, material properties and behaviour ; Concrete  constituents, mix design, shortterm and longterm properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis  PERT and CPM.
 Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
 Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam columns, column bases; Connections  simple and eccentric, beamcolumn connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

Geotechnical Engineering
 Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Threephase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability  onedimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils  twodimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
 Foundation Engineering: Subsurface investigations  scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories  Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes  finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils  Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations  Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations  types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.

Water Resources Engineering
 Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.
 Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics  Energydepth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow
 Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface runoff models, ground water hydrology  steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
 Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapotranspiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

Environmental Engineering
 Water and Waste Water: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
 Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
 Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
 Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

Transportation Engineering
 Transportation Infrastructure: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways  crosssectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design.
 Highway Pavements: Highway materials  desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 372012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 582011; Distresses in concrete pavements.
 Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time  delay and OD study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.

Geomatics Engineering
 Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps  scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement  Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
 Photogrammetry  scale, flying height; Remote sensing  basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).
Chemical Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.
 Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
 Complex Variables: Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality.
 Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.
 Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations.

Process Calculations and Thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multi component, reacting and nonreacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.
First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.

Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations
Fluid statics, Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids, shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop.
Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.

Heat Transfer
Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations. Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators.

Mass Transfer
Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts; design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquidliquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.

Chemical Reaction Engineering
Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, nonideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; nonisothermal reactors; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.

Instrumentation and Process Control
Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control.

Plant Design and Economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors.

Chemical Technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers).
Computer Science and Information Technology

Engineering Mathematics
 Discrete Mathematics: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.
 Linear Algebra: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.
 Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration. Probability: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

Digital Logic
Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

Computer Organization and Architecture
Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

Programming and Data Structures
Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

Algorithms
Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

Theory of Computation
Regular expressions and finite automata. Contextfree grammars and pushdown automata. Regular and contexfree languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

Compiler Design
Lexical analysis, parsing, syntaxdirected translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

Operating System
Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

Databases
ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

Computer Networks
Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of WiFi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.
Electronics and Communications Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.
 Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
 Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
 Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's theorems.
 Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula; Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem.
 Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
 Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions  binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Networks, Signals and Systems
 Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.
 Continuoustime signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discretetime signals: discretetime Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Ztransform, interpolation of discretetime signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

Electronic Devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; PN junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twintub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Singlestage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, midfrequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multistage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple opamp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, singletransistor and op amp configurations; Function generators, waveshaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Digital Circuits
Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Control Systems
Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steadystate analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and rootlocus plots; Lag, lead and laglead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

Communications
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, intersymbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

Electromagnetics
Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, Sparameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cutoff frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.
Electrical Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors.
 Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Green’s theorem.
 Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
 Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
 Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis.
 Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, Single and Multi‐step methods for differential equations.
 Transform Theory: Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform, z‐Transform.

Electric Circuits
Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, The venin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two‐port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits.

Electromagnetic Fields
Coulomb's Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss's Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

Signals and Systems
Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals, Shifting and scaling operations, Linear Time Invariant and Causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, Sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform and zTransform.

Electrical Machines
Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.

Power Systems
Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, Gauss Seidel and NewtonRaphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over‐current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.

Control Systems
Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems, RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements
Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.

Analog and Digital Electronics
Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters, VCOs and Timers, Combinational and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing.

Power Electronics
Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and BuckBoost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.
Instrumentation Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
 Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.
 Analysis of Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
 Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.
 Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

Electrical Circuits:
Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; vi relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.
Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.
Peak, average and rms values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements.
Oneport and twoport networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open, and short circuit parameters.

Signals and Systems
Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Control Systems
Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steadystateerrors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and leadlag compensators, state space representation of systems; timedelay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; onoff, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers.

Analog Electronics
Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.

Digital Electronics
Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multivibrators, sequential circuits, flip flops, shift registers, timers and counters; sampleandhold circuit, multiplexer, analogto digital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigmadelta) and digitalto analog converters (weighted R, R2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

Measurements
SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty  accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Qmeter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation
Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

Communication and Optical Instrumentation
Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon's sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude, phase, frequency, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photodiode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing.
Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
 Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace's equations.
 Complex Variables: Analytic functions; CauchyRiemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.
 Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.
 Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multistep methods for differential equations.

Applied Mechanics and Design
 Engineering Mechanics: Freebody diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations, collisions.
 Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson's ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.
 Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.
 Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.
 Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the SN diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs.

Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
 Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; controlvolume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings.
 HeatTransfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler's charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan Boltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.
 Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behavior of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
 Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Airstandard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbo machinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Peltonwheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.

Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering
 Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials.
 Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.
 Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of nontraditional machining processes; principles of work holding, design of jigs and fixtures.
 Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
 Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.
 Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
 Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
 Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Metallurgical Engineering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
 Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, one dimensional heat and wave equations.
 Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
 Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and nonlinear (Bisection, Secant, Newton Raphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations.

Thermodynamics and Rate Processes
Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry single electrode potential, electrochemical cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.

Extractive Metallurgy
Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro, hydro, and electrometallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of nonferrous metals – aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.

Physical Metallurgy
Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nanocrystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminum alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; structure and properties of industrially important ferrous and nonferrous alloys; elements of Xray and electron diffraction; principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; introduction to electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; introduction to electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Mechanical Metallurgy
Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; superplasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

Manufacturing Processes
Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; Hot, warm and cold working of metals; Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; Welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminum alloys, defects in welded joints; Powder metallurgy – production of powders, compaction and sintering; NDT using dye penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.
Production And Industrial Enginnering

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
 Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
 Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor series.
 Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.
 Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.

General Engineering
 Engineering Materials: Structure and properties correlation; engineering materials (metals, ceramics, polymers and composites) – properties and applications; stress strain behavior of metals and alloys; iron carbon phase diagram, heat treatment of metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties.
 Applied Mechanics: Engineering mechanics – equivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium; trusses; strength of materials – stress, strain and their relationship; failure theories, Mohr’s circle(stress), deflection of beams, bending and shear stress, Euler’s theory of columns.
 Theory of Machines and Design: Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and followers; governors and fly wheels; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; interference/shrink fit joints; design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches; pressure vessels.
 Thermal and Fluids Engineering: Fluid mechanics – fluid statics, Bernoulli’s equation, flow through pipes, equations of continuity and momentum, capillary action, contact angle and wetting; thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic system and processes, calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes; air standard cycles; heat transfer – basic applications of conduction, convection and radiation.

Manufacturing ProcessesI
 Casting: types of casting processes and applications; patterns – types and materials; allowances; moulds and cores – materials, making, and testing; casting techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys; analysis of solidification and microstructure development; design of gating and riser; origin of defects.
 Metal Forming: Stressstrain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; concept of flow stress; hot and cold working – forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing; sheet metal working processes – blanking, bending and deep drawing; ideal work and slab analysis; origin of metal working defects.
 Joining of materials: Principles of fusion welding processes(manual metal arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc welding processes)–different heat sources (flame, arc, resistive, laser, electron beam), and heat transfer and associated losses, flux application, feeding of filler rod; Principles of solid state welding processes (friction, explosive welding, ultrasonic welding processes); Principles of adhesive, brazing and soldering processes; Origins of welding defects.
 Powder Processing: Production of metal/ceramic powders, compaction and sintering of metals and ceramic powders.
 Polymers and Composites: Plastic processing – injection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites.

Manufacturing ProcessesII

Machine Tools and Machining: Basic machine tools like centre lathe, milling machine, and drilling machine – construction and kinematics; machining processes  turning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread production, grinding; geometry of single point cutting tools, chip formation, cutting forces, specific cutting energy and power requirements, Merchant’s analysis; basis of selection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life, economics of machining, thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids, machinability; Jigs and fixtures – principles, applications, and design
Nontraditional Manufacturing: Principles, applications, effect of process parameters on MRR and product quality of nontraditional machining processes – USM, AJM, WJM, AWJM, EDM and Wire cut EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM.
 Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD – geometric modeling, CAM – CNC and robotics – configurations, drives and controls, Group Technology and its applications – CAPP, cellular manufacturing and FMS.


Quality and Reliability
 Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits, and tolerances, gauge design, interchangeability, selective assembly; linear, angular, and form measurements(straightness, squareness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity) by mechanical and optical methods; inspection of screw threads and gears; surface finish measurement by contact and noncontact methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
 Quality Management: Quality – concept and costs; quality assurance; statistical quality control, acceptance sampling, zero defects, six sigma; total quality management; ISO 9000.
 Reliability and Maintenance: Reliability, availability and maintainability; distribution of failure and repair times; determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models; determination of system reliability; preventive maintenance and replacement.

Industrial Engineering
 Product Design and Development: Principles of good product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent engineering; comparison of production alternatives.
 Work System Design: Taylor’s scientific management, Gilbreths’s contributions; productivity – concepts and measurements; method study, micromotion study, principles of motion economy; work measurement –time study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS; ergonomics; job evaluation, merit rating, incentive schemes, and wage administration.
 Facility Design: Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; types of plant layout and their evaluation; computer aided layout design techniques; assembly line balancing; materials handling systems.

Operations Research and Operations Management
 Operation Research: Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis; transportation and assignment models; network flow models, constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers; Markovian queuing models; dynamic programming; simulation – manufacturing applications.
 Engineering Economy and Costing: Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; breakeven analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements, timecost tradeoff, resource leveling.

Production Control: Forecasting techniques – causal and time series models, moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production planning; master production scheduling; MRP and MRPII; routing, scheduling and priority dispatching; Push and pull production systems, concept of JIT manufacturing system; Logistics, distribution, and supply chain management; Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic inventory models, quantity discount; perpetual and periodic inventory control systems.
Project management – PERT and CPM.
Textile Engineering and Fibre Science

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
 Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
 Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations.
 Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
 Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations.

Textile Fibers
Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers; Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to important bast fibres; properties and uses of natural and man made fibres including carbon, aramid and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers; physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis.
Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell. Polymerization of nylon6, nylon66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene; Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow totop conversion and different texturing methods.
Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, Xray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology of manmade fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and property correlation.

Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties
Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment; the technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber; Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring & traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages; Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn; Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning.
Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; Twist factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns; Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn; Cause of fibre migration and its estimation; Irregularity index; Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, airjet and friction spun yarns.

Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties
Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step precision winding, package faults and their remedies; Yarn clearers and tensioners; Different systems of yarn splicing; Features of modern cone winding machines; Different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and sectional warping machines; Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, sizing machines; Principles of pirn winding processes and machines.
Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding; Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment; Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttleless weaving machines; Principles of multiphase and circular looms.
Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures; Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle of web formation & bonding.
Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions. Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry; elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set ofwoven fabrics.

Textile Testing
Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors; Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content; High volume fibre testing; Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; Tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns; Classimat fault analysis; Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance; Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Statistical analysis of experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests, analysis of variance and control charts.

Chemical processing
Impurities in natural fibre; Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk; Mercerization of cotton; Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends.
Classification of dyes; Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes; Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends; Dyeing machines; Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used; Dye fibre interaction; Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing; Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.
Styles of printing; Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners; Printing auxiliaries; Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes; Pigment printing; Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester; Transfer printing of polyester; Inkjet printing.
Mechanical finishing of cotton. Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing of cotton; Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing; Heat setting of synthetic fabrics; Minimum application techniques; Pollution control and treatment of effluents.
Food Technology

Engineering Mathematics
 Linear Algebra : Algebra of matrices; Inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations; Symmetric, skewsymmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Diagonalisation of matrices; CayleyHamilton Theorem.

Calculus :
(a) Functions of Single Variable: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems; Indeterminate forms and L'Hospital's rule; Maxima and minima; Taylor's theorem; Fundamental theorem and mean valuetheorems of integral calculus; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes.
(b) Functions of Two Variables: Limit, continuity and partial derivatives; Directional derivative; Total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points; Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals, and their applications.
(c) Sequence and Series: Convergence of sequence and series; Tests for convergence; Power series; Taylor's series; Fourier Series; Half range sine and cosine series.
 Vector Calculus : Gradient, divergence and curl; Line and surface integrals; Green's theorem, Stokes theorem and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs).
 Complex Variables : Analytic functions; CauchyRiemann equations; Line integral, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula (without proof); Taylor's series and Laurent series; Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.
 Ordinary Differential Equations : First order equations (linear and nonlinear); Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; CauchyEuler equation; Power series solutions; Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties.
 Partial Differential Equations : Classification of second order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation of variables; Laplace equation; Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.
 Probability and Statistics: Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes' Theorem; Discrete and continuous random variables: Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Correlation and linear regression.
 Numerical Methods : Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and GaussSeidel methods; Lagrange and Newton's interpolations, Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by NewtonRaphson method; Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule and Gaussian quadrature rule; Numerical solutions of first order differential equations by Euler's method and 4th order RungeKutta method.

Food Chemistry and Nutrition
 Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, & poly saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.
 Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles.
 Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism.
 Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin.
 Food Flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.
 Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non enzymatic browning.
 Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co factors, antinutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases.
 Chemical and Biochemical Changes: changes occur in foods during different processing.

Food Microbiology
 Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gramstaining.
 Microbial growt h: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique.
 Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products.
 Toxins From Microbes : pathogens and nonpathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera.
 Fermented Foods and Deverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soyasauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

Food Products Technology
 Processing Principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods.
 Food Pack Aging and Storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage.
 Cereal Processing and Products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals.
 Oil Processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation.
 Fruits and Vegetables Processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles.
 Plantation Crops Processing and Products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices.
 Milk and Milk Products Processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice cream, cheese and milk powder.
 Processing of Animal Products: Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder.
 Waste Utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of byproducts from rice milling.
 Food Standards and Quality Maintenance: FPO, PFA, AMark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).

Food Engineering
 Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number.
 Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers.
 Mass Transfer : molecular diffusion and Flick's law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films.
 Mechanical Operations : size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid.
 Thermal Operations : thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freezedrying, freezing and crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychometric, humidification and dehumidification operations.